CP Technologies

How to Make Amateur Rockets
(2nd Edition) Book

Table of Contents

Amateur Rocketry - Past & Present

I. Rockets and Rocket Engines

Chapter 1 - Basic Principals of Rockets and Propulsion

Rocket Flight
Trajectory Calculation - Degrees of Freedom
Drag and Drag Coefficients
Rocket Engines
Characteristic Velocity
Thrust Coefficient
Specific Impulse

Chapter 2 - Liquid and Hybrid Rocket Engines
Liquid Propellant Flow Rates
Liquid Propellant Injector Hole Size
Liquid Propellant Combustion Chamber Size
Hybrid Port Area
Hybrid Oxidizer Flow Rate

II. Designing a Solid Rocket Motor

Chapter 3 - Solid Rocket Motors
Solid Propellant Burn Rate Equation - Propellant Weight Flow
Pressed Powder Propellants
Potassium Nitrate and Sugar Propellants
Composite Propellants
Composite Propellant Ingredients - Oxidizers, Fuels, Plasticizers, Binders and Curing Agents
General Composite Propellant Formulations
A Recommend Starting Amateur Propellant
Different Grades of Ammonium Nitrate

Chapter 4 - Formulating A Composite Propellant
Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant Formulation Based On Specific Impulse
Ammonium Nitrate Propellant Formulation Based On Specific Impulse
Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant Formulation Based On Combustion Temperature
Ammonium Nitrate Propellant Formulation Based On Combustion Temperature
Oxidizer and Metal Particle Size/Shapes
Formulation To Increase Burn Rate
Amount Of Curing Agent
Converting Propellant Ingredients Weight Percentage To Weights For Mixing
Sample Propellant Batches

Chapter 5 - Preliminary Motor Design
Motor Design Process
Thrust To Weight Ratio
Propellant Mass Fraction
Propellant Weight
Initial Thrust
Motor Impulse

Chapter 6 - Rocket Motor Performance Analysis

Throat Diameter
Exit Cone Diameter
Chamber Pressure and Thrust
Propellant Grain Pattern Selection
Propellant Surface Area
Propellant Sizing For A Neutral Chamber Pressure/Thrust Curve
Burn Rate Parameters For Some Propellants

Chapter 7 - Motor Structural Analysis
Chamber Wall Thickness
Structural Properties of Common Rocket Chamber, Bulkhead and Nozzle Materials
Nozzle Design and Structural Analysis
Bulkhead Design and Structural Analysis
Nozzle and Bulkhead Ejection
Retaining Pins or Bolts
Retaining Pins or Bolt Hole Location
Retaining Rings
Snap Rings
Sealing With O-rings and Sizing Grooves

Chapter 8 - Motor Thermal Analysis
Chamber Insulation Thickness
Chamber Wall Temperature
Nozzle Temperature and Ablation
Bulkhead Temperature and Ablation
Thermal Properties of Common Rocket Materials

Chapter 9 - Final Motor Design
Nozzle and Exit Cone Design
Divergence Losses In Exit Cone
Cost of Motor

III. Making a Motor and Testing It

Chapter 10 - Making Rocket Chambers
Chamber Dimensions
Chamber Insulation - Paper or Rubber?
Installing Rubber Insulation

Chapter 11 - Making Nozzles and Bulkheads
Making Nozzles with PVC Fittings and Water Putty
Drilling Pilot Throat Holes
Graphite or Phenolic Inserts Inside The Nozzle
Making Bulkheads from PVC End Caps
Adding Delay Elements to the Bulkhead

Chapter 12 - How to Mix the Propellant
Required Measuring and Mixing Equipment
Measuring and Mixing the Ingredients
Calculating the Correct Amounts of Each Ingredient
A Safe Procedure for Mixing Propellant - Step by Step

Chapter 13 - Casting the Propellant
Required Casting Equipment
Using Simple and Cheap Casting Cores with Wax Paper
A Simple Straight Core Casting Fixture
Procedures for Casting Different Propellant Grain Patterns
Casting the Delay Grain
Curing and Trimming the Propellant Grain

Chapter 14 - Final Assembly
Installing Nozzles
Gluing PVC Motors Together - No Internal Insulation
Installing Retaining Pins - If Using Them
Installing Bulkheads

Chapter 15 - Static Testing Your Motor
Basic Static Testing - Visual Data Only
Getting Approximate Burn Rate vs. Pressure Data From Only Visual Data
Measuring Chamber Pressure During A Static Test
Converting Voltage Output To Engineering Units
Using DATAQ software
Combustion Efficiency - Measuring C* Delivered
Converting Chamber Pressure To Thrust
Measuring Thrust During A Static Test With A Load Cell
Converting Thrust to Chamber Pressure
A Simple Load Cell Amplifier

IV. Designing and Building Your Rocket

Chapter 16 - Making the Rocket Body
Aerodynamic Compressive Loads on the Body Tube
Structural Analysis of the Body Tube
Compressive Strengths of Typical Body Tube Materials
Couplers - Making Your Own from the Body Tube Material
Aerodynamic Forces on the Fin
Nosecone Shapes and Their Equations

Chapter 17 - Mounting the Rocket Motor
Making Center Rings
Making Easy Centering Standoffs for the Motor

Chapter 18 - Recovery Systems
Sizing Delay Grains for the Desired Time
Electronic Activation of Ejection Charges
Determining the Amount of Ejection Charge
Sizing the Parachute
Drag Coefficients for Different Parachute Types
Recovery Zone - How Far Will Your Rocket Drift
Burn Rate Parameters For Some Propellants

Chapter 19 - Rocket Stability - Fin Design
Determining the Center of Pressure
Static Stability
Fin Design and Sizing
Maximum Permissible Angle of Attack

V. Flying Your Rocket

Chapter 20 - Launch Pads
A Simple Launch Pad With Angle Bracket, Hose Clamps and C-clamp
An Angle Bracket and Flat Plate Launch Pad

Chapter 21 - Electrical Ignition Systems
A Simple Direct Ignition Circuit
A Simple Direct Ignition Circuit With Continuity Buzzer
An Ignition Circuit with a Relay and Continuity Buzzer

Chapter 22 - Making Your Own Igniters
Using Composite Propellant for Igniters
Making Nichrome Wire and Resistor Ignition Sources for Composite Propellant Igniters
Electrical Cannon Fuse Igniters
Bag Igniters

Chapter 23 - Finding a Launch Site
Required Recovery Zones for Different Altitudes
Private vs. Government BLM Land

Chapter 24 - The Big Day ...... Launch!
Setting Up the Launch Pad and Electrical System
Distances From Launch Controller to Launch Pad Depends on the Motor Size
Preparing the Rocket for Launch
Launch Failures

Chapter 25 - If at First You Don't Succeed .....
Determining What Went Wrong With Your Rocket
Aerodynamic Problems
Recovery Problems

VI. Some Legal Issues Before You Fly

Chapter 26 - Is It Legal to Make My Own Motors?
ATF Explosives List
Making Motors For Use Out of State and In State

Chapter 27 - Do You Need a Waiver? Launch License?
Launch License
What is Required

Chapter 28 - Getting an FAA Waiver
Filling Out the Waiver Form
What Goes in Each Block of the Form
What to Send with the Waiver
Where to Send It All

VII. Important Stuff!

Chapter 29 - Stay Alive and In One Piece!
Where to Work
Safety with Chemicals
Chapter 30 - Personal Comments from the Author

Appendix A - Some Motor Designs To Get You Started
Appendix B - Sample Safety Code for Launches
Appendix C - FAA Regional Offices
Appendix D - FAA Sample Waiver
Appendix E - Challenges of Large Solid Rocket Motors
Appendix F - Strand Burn Rate Measurements or "How To Determine Your Propellant's Burn Rate"
Appendix G - Suppliers of Rocket Parts
Appendix H - Thrust Coefficients
Appendix I - Drag Coefficients
Appendix J - Some Rocket Designs to Get You Started
Appendix K - Going Into Space or Orbit
Appendix L - Useful Internet Web Sites
Appendix M - Subsonic Mach Number As A Function Of Area Ratio and Gamma